A history of deportation




 Sept 1 and DHS

  • ICE is created in 2003 under DHS to 

  • At the border, CBP in 2005 introduced the Consequence Delivery System (CDS), designed to toughen the tactics used against unauthorized crossers in hopes of deterring future entry attempts. Instead of allowing unauthorized entrants to return to Mexico voluntarily, without any meaningful legal consequences, formal removal proceedings became far more common as did criminal charges for illegal entry or re-entry.

  • Beginning in 2002, the federal government began 287(g) agreements, allowing state and local law enforcement officials to perform certain immigration enforcement functions. By the end of the Bush administration, more than 70 such agreements had been signed.

Source: Migration Policy




 President Obama inherited a more legally robust and better-resourced immigration enforcement regime than his predecessors had. A series of laws in 1996 established new grounds for deportation, penalties for the crimes of illegal entry and re-entry, mandates for detention of deportable noncitizens, and a framework for cooperative arrangements on immigration enforcement between the federal government and state and local law enforcement agencies. Though authorized during the Clinton administration, many of these enforcement tools were not deployed and fully resourced until the Bush administration, mostly in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

  • The rise of "Removals"

  • The Obama Deportation Record: A Shift from Returns to Removals

    • When President Obama took office in 2009, his administration abandoned some Bush-era strategies, such as worksite enforcement operations, but allowed others to scale up. By 2013, Secure Communities was operational in all jails and prisons in the United States. And the Border Patrol began systematically applying CDS border-wide starting in 2011.

Source: Migration Policy

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The Trump era